World History from 1 AD To 1500 AD

6 AD Herod Deposed-Herod Archelaus was deposed by the Roman Emperor, Augustus because of Herod Archelaus’ brutal treatment of the Jews of Judea and Samaria.

9 AD German Tribes Destroy 3 Roman Legions- Three Roman legions under the command of P Quinctilius Varnus were defeated by a German army led by Ariminus. The battle took place in the Teutoburg Forest, and resulted in Varnus committing suicide.The results of this battle ensured German independence from Rome.

9 AD Hsin Dynasty- Wang Mang founded the short-lived Hsin Dynasty. He instituted wide-ranging reforms that included breaking up large estates, and freeing of slaves. There was a great deal of opposition to his policies and he was eventually forced to tax slaveholding instead of releasing slaves. Wang Mang instituted a series of price controls on staples. His opponents fomented revolts against him and in 23 he was killed during one such revolt.

14 AD Tiberius Secedes Augustus – Augustus died on August 19th at Nola. While legally all of his powers ceased with his demise, Augustus had arranged for his family members to succeed him. Thus Tiberius, the son of Augustus’ wife Livia by her first marriage, became the new Emperor of Rome.

25 AD Han Dynasty Founded – After the death of Wang Mang, Hou Han founded the Eastern Han Dynasty. During this dynasty, which lasted until 220, Buddhism was introduced into China.

33 AD Jesus Christ was put to death by the Romans in Jerusalem on April 7th

41 AD Caligula Assassinated- After the death of Tiberius, he was succeeded by Caligula. Caligula was considered by many to be insane. He was assassinated by Cassius Chaerea, a member of the Praetorian Guard on January 24th in the year 41 A.D.

51 AD Conquest Of Wales Completed By Romans- The Romans under Ostorius Scaopula defeated Carctacus of Wales. This eventually led to the complete subjugation of Wales to the Romans twenty years later.

54 AD Claudius Murdered, Nero Emperor- According to legend, Claudius was assassinated by his wife Agrippina using poisoned mushrooms. Agrippina then arranged for her son, Nero, to become Emperor. Nero eventually had his mother killed.

64 AD Rome Burns- The city of Rome was nearly destroyed in a catastrophic fire. The fire is said to have been set by Nero. Legend has it that ‘Rome burned while Nero fiddled’.

66 AD Judaea Rebels Against Rome- A rebellion broke out in Jerusalem against Roman rule. The Roman fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem was captured and the soldiers killed. The Romans dispatch an army from Syria to quell the revolt, but it was destroyed on the way to Jerusalem.

68 AD Year of the Four Emperors- The year 69 A.D. is known as the year of the four emperors. Nero was assassinated and civil war erupted to determine who would succeed him. In the course of that tumultuous year, Nero was succeeded by Galba who was followed by Otho. Otho was defeated by Vitellius and Vespasian finally established a new dynasty. Vespasian himself was the son of a tax collector from Reate. He represented a complete break with the Augustinian dynasties that preceded him.

70 AD Jerusalem Falls- Rome sent an enormous army under the command of Vespasian, to retake Judea. The Roman army quickly subdued the Jewish forces in the Galilee and laid siege to Jerusalem. Vespasian was recalled to Rome and the siege continued by his son, Titus. Titus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem on the ninth day of Ab (according to the Jewish calendar). He burned Jerusalem, killing or selling into slavery tens of thousands of Jews.

73 AD Masada Falls- The Fortress of Masada, occupied by Jewish zealots opposed to Rome, held out for three years. Masada was located in the Judean Desert near the shores of the Dead Sea. When it became clear that they could hold out no longer, the defenders of Masada committed mass suicide rather then become captives of the Romans.

78 AD Kushan Dynasty- The Kushan Dynasty was established by Kanishka. The Kushan Empire extended from Benares and Kabul to the Vindhayas. The Kushan capital was at Peshawar. The Kushans thrived on the Chinese-Roman trade that passed through their Empire.

79 AD Mount Vesuvius Explodes- In 79 A.D., Mount Vesuvius erupted. The eruption destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Most of the cities’ populations managed to flee, but 20,000 inhabitants were killed.

80 AD Coloseum Dedicated-Vespasian had ordered the Colosseum built, but it fell to his son Titus to dedicate it. It was used for gladiator games until 404 AD.

89 AD Domitian’s Reign Of Terror- Domitian who succeeded Titus Vespasianus (his older brother), commenced a reign of terror after an abortive coup against him. Domitian levied heavy taxes on the provinces. Domitian was assassinated in 96 A.D.

96 – 180 AD Five Good Emperors – Starting with Emperor Marcus Nerva, Rome was ruled by five individuals who became known as the “Good Emperors”. The Emperors maintained both domestic tranquility and relative peace on the borders. They were known for building roads and other large civil projects.

The Five Emperors were:

96-98 A.D. Marcus Nerva

98-117 A.D. Marcus Traianus

117-138 A.D. Publiius Hadrianus (Hadrian)

138-161 A.D. Antoninus Pius

161-180 A.D. Marcus Aurelius

122 AD Hadrian’s Wall Was Built- The Roman emperor Hadrian on a visit to Britain ordered the construction of a defensive wall. The wall stretched 70 miles across Northern England.132 AD Chang Heng Invents Seismograph- The Chinese poet and inventor developed the first seismograph. The instrument was a series of balls that fall if there is the slightest tremor.132 AD Bar Kochba Revolt- The Jews of Jerusalem rose up in rebellion in 132 after the Romans built a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish Temple. The revolt was led by Simon Bar Kokhba and Rabbi Eleazar and achieved some successes early on. The Romans were forced out of Jerusalem and most of Judea. Three years later, Roman armies under the command of Julius Severus retake Jerusalem and sack it. Bar Kokhba is killed at the village of Bethel. Under the orders of Roman Emperor Hadrian, Jerusalem is completely leveled and Jews are forbidden to live there.

167 AD German Tribes Invades Northern Italy- The German tribes crossed the Danube River and attacked the Roman Empire. They advanced as far as Aquileia in Northern Italy. The Romans under Marcus Aurelius managed to repulse the Germans in 169 A.D.

180 AD Marcus Aurelius Dies- In 180 A.D., Marcus Aurelius died and was succeeded by his son, Commodus. Commodus was the first emperor since Domitian to succeed by virtue of birth, rather than by assassination. Commodus later had two of his prefects executed. He lavished enormous wealth on himself and was strangled in 192 A.D.

184 AD Revolt of the Yellow Turbans-In 184, a rebellion broke out among the peasantry in China. The government ministers were massacred and the Han dynasty was effectively brought to an end.

200 AD Septimius Severus- Septimius Severus came to power at the point of a sword. Severus first challenged Didius Julianus who was the highest bidder to become emperor at an auction held by the Praetorian Guard. Severus went on to defeat Septimius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, each head of his own legion and each claiming the right to be Emperor.

212 AD Edict Of Caracalla- Caracalla, the son of Septimus Severus who succeeded him after killing his brother, issued the Constitio Antoniniana. Although this edict extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Empire, its value was limited since citizens actually had very few rights at this time.

220 AD Three Kingdoms- Six Dynasties- With the end of the Han Dynasty, Tsao Pei assumed power and founded the Wei Dynasty. The Wei dynasty was the first in a series of dynasties known as the Six Dynasties. While the Wei dynasty would eventually be recognized as the legitimate one, for some period of time, three competing kingdoms each claimed to be the legitimate rulers of China.

224 AD Battle Of Hormizdagan- Artabanus V, king of the Parthian Empire is defeated in the battle of Hormizdagan by Ardashir the shah of Persia. This proved the beginning of the Sassanid Empire.

235 AD The Roman Army On Rhine Revolts – Alexander Severus the Roman Emperor conducted an indecisive campaign against the Germanic tribes. Alexander Severus’ troops revolted and killed him. Maximinus, a Thracian general, became the new emperor.

259 AD Marcus Postumus Defends Gaul-From 235 to 284 A.D., the Roman Empire was shaken by Civil War. There were 22 emperors and all but two met their deaths violently. During this period, both Germanic tribes in the north and Sassanid Persians in the east made inroads into the Empire.

274 AD Battle At Chalons – In 260 A.D., Marcus Postumus created a separate Gallic Empire. In 274 A.D. at the Battle of Chalons, his successor Pius Tetricus was defeated, thereby ending the short-lived Gallic Empire.

284 – 305 AD Age Of Diocletian – Diocletian became emperor in 284 A.D. He engaged in a series of reforms that reinvigorated the empire and transformed it. His actions launched the period that became known as the Late Empire.

Diocletian divided the empire into four administrative units each with its own rulers and administration. Diocletion strengthened the army as well as the civil service.

287 AD Aurelius Carausius Revolts-Aurelius Carausius, commander of the Roman fleet in the English Channel, revolted. He established England as an independent kingdom of Britain.

296 AD Britain Reinvaded By Romans- Constantius Chlorus invaded Britain. He defeated Allectus who had killed Marcus Aurelius Carausius. Britain was reintegrated into the Roman Empire and divided into four provinces.

296 AD Battle Of Carrhae – Artabanus V, King of the Parthian Empire, is defeated at the Battle of Hormizdagan by Ardashir, the Shah of Persia. This marked the beginning of the Sassanid Empire.

303 AD Galerius Convinces Diocletian To Persecute Christians- Galeria the Roman Augustus convinced Diocletian to begin a general persecution of Christians in an attempt to stop the growth of the religion. Churches were burned, and clergy were imprisoned. Persecution decreased in the Western Empire by 305 A.D. and ended in the East in 313 A.D.

317 AD Tatar Warriors Break Through Great Wall- Tatar warriors broke through the Great Wall of China that had been built during the Han Dynasty to provide Northern China with protection against invasion. The Tatars drove out the Western Chin Dynasty, which was forced to move its capital to Nanking.

320 AD Gupta Dynasty- The Gupta Empire was founded in 320 by Chandragupta I. Under his successor, Samudragupta, the Gupta Empire was extended to include all of Northern India. The Gupta Empire ushered in a new golden age of Indian culture.

324 AD Constantine The Great & The Battle Of Adrianople – Constantine the Great, who was named Caesar by his troops in Britain in 312 A.D., initiated a civil war of succession against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminated in 324 A.D. at the Battle of Adrianople (in today’s Turkey), Constantine defeated all his rivals and became the undisputed emperor of all Rome.

325 AD Persian Repel Arabs – Persia was invaded by Arabs from Baharian and Mesopotamia. Shapur II became leader of the Persians. It was he who carried the war to the Arabs, seizing much of Arabia and making them vassal states to the Persian Empire.

330 AD Constantine The Great Establishes His Capital At Byzantium- In 330 Constantine the Great dedicated his new capital at Byzantium. The city that became known as Constantinople. It was strategically located in the East dominating the Bosphorus Straits. Constantine spent four years building his new capital.

337 AD Constantine The Great Dies And Empire Divides- In 337 A.D., Constantine died. He left his empire to his sons. The empire soon found itself divided with the Western Roman Empire governed from Rome by Constans and the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constantius II.

351 AD Battle At Mursa- Reunites Empire- At the Battle of Mursa in present-day Croatia, Constantius defeated Magnentius. Magnentius committed suicide and the Roman Empire was once again united.

361 – 363 AD Battle Of Argentoratum- At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357 A.D., the Roman general Julian drove the Franks from Gaul, thus re-establishing the Rhine as the frontier of the Empire. Julian’s victory served to ensure his popularity and he became the next Roman Emperor. But his reign lasted only 18 months: from November 361 to June 363 A.D. Julian is best known for his attempt to reinstitute paganism into Rome.

376 AD Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns- The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, swept in from Asia. They managed to defeat the Ostrogoth Empire. This brought to an end an empire that had dominated Eastern Europe for 200 years.

378 AD Valens Killed by Visigoths- After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths sought refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Valens gave them permission to cross the Danube as long as they agreed to disarmament. In the end, the Visigoths were mistreated by Roman officials and they revolted. At the Battle at Adrianople, the Visigoths deployed mounted cavalry against the Romans. The Romans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths and Valens was killed. This represented one of the worst defeats ever suffered by the Romans. The northern borders of the Empire had been permanently pierced.

395 AD Theodosius Dies Empire Split Permanently- When Emperor Theodosius died in 395 A.D., the Roman Empire was forever split. Theodosius was succeeded by his sons Arcadius, who ruled the Eastern portion, and Honorius, who ruled the Western.

400 AD Windmills Used In Persia-The Fifth Syrian War ended at the Battle of Banyais, between Antiochus II (King of the Seleucid Empire) and Ptolemy V of Egypt. The Egyptians were decisively defeated by Antiochus’ forces, and were forced to cede all their territory — with the exception of the Sinai Desert — to the Seleucids.

407 AD Romans Withdraw From Britain- In 407 A.D., Constantine led his troops on a withdrawal from Britain. Roman troops never returned to Britain.

410 AD Rome Sacked by Visigoths- After a series of battles that continued sporadically for over ten years, the Visigoths under the command of Alaric, sacked Rome in August 410 A.D. For twelve days, Alaric and his men rained ruin upon the city.

439 AD Carthage Captured By Vandals – The Roman city of Carthage was captured by Vandals, under the command of Genseric. Carthage became his capital.

441 AD First Saxon Revolt- The first Saxon revolt against native Britons took place in 441 A.D. It was led by two brothers, Hengst and Horsa.

451 AD Attila The Hun Defeated- Attila the Hun was leader of the Huns and it was he who had earlier defeated the Visigoths. Attila commanded an army that is said to have numbered as many as half a million men. Attila swept through Gaul. In 451 A.D., Attila faced the Visigoths and Romans together in the battle of Chalons. Attila was defeated in this battle, and forced to withdraw. He went on to invade Italy but was convinced to withdraw by Pope Leo. He died in 453 A.D.

455 AD Saxons Crush Britons- At the battle of Aylesford in Kent, England, the Saxons led by Hengst and Horsa defeated the Britons. This battle was an important step in the Saxon conquest of Britain.

455 AD Vandals Sack Rome- The Vandals viewed the assassination of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III as an opportunity to attack Rome. Their attack was successful and the city was sacked.

476 AD Western Roman Empire Ends- The Western Roman Empire came to an end when the Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by German mercenaries at Ravenna. The German mercenaries then declared themselves to be the rulers of Italy.

483 AD Shah Defeated By Ephthalites- Firuz, the Shah of Iran, was defeated by the Ephthalites (from the site of present-day Afghanistan). Firuz attacked the Ephthalites after a series of inconclusive skirmishes with them.

486 AD Roman Occupation Of Gaul Ends- The last Roman emperor of France was defeated by Clovis I, King of the Salian Franks. After the defeat of the Romans, Clovis established the Kingdom of the Franks.

488 AD Ostrogothic Kingdom Of Italy- Theodoric I (the Great) invaded northern Italy at the request of Zeno the Byzantine Emperor. He conquered Italy and established the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.

500 AD Arthur’s Victory Over Saxons-The legendary Arthur won a battle against the Saxons at Mound Badon in Dorset, in Southern England. This slowed the Saxon conquest of England.

500 AD Svealand- The First Swedish State- Svealand, the first Swedish state was founded around 500 A.D. The Goths inhabited the Southern part of the Swedish peninsula. Much of what is known about early Sweden has been taken from the epic “Beowulf”, written in 700 A.D.

503 – 557 AD Persian-Roman Wars- Between 503 and 557 A.D.,three successive wars — interrupted by periods of peace — are fought between the Persian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. All have the same basic cause — an inability to define the borders and the relationship between the two empires. In 567 a ‘definitive’ peace was reached. Under its terms, Rome agreed to pay the Persians 30,000 pieces of gold annually. The borders between the empire were reaffirmed, Christian worship was to be protected in the Persian Empire, and regulation of trade and diplomatic relations were laid out.

507 AD Kingdom Of Franks – The Franks’ Clovis defeated the Visigoths under Alaric II at the Battle of Vouille. The Visigoths retreated into Spain, where they retained their Empire.

532 AD Nika Revolt- A popular uprising took place in Constantinople against Justinian. Constantinople was nearly destroyed by fire. The insurrection quelled with great cruelty by Belisarius. Thirty thousand people were slain.

537 AD Hagia Sophia Cathedral Built- The Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople was completed. The cathedral represented the culmination of Byzantine architecture, with a large domed basilica.

552 AD Battle at Taginae- The Byzantine army invaded Italy and defeated the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae. The Byzantines, using a combination of pikes and bows, decimated the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.

558 – 650 AD The Avars- The Avars, a Turkish Mongolian group, formed an Empire that extended from the Volga to the Hungarian plains. In 626 A.D., they laid siege to Constantinople, but were forced to withdraw.

565 AD Justinian Great- Justinian the Great died in 565 A.D. bringing to end 38 years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under his stewardship, the Empire expanded to include all of North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the first comprehensive compilation of Roman Law was published.

572 AD Leovigild King Of Visigoths- Leovigild the King of Visigoths set off to reinvigorate the empire. He extended the Vistigoth dominance to all parts of the Iberian Pennisular.

577 AD Battle At Deorham- At the Battle of Deorham in southwestern England, the Saxons defeated the Welsh. This victory virtually completed the Saxon conquest of England.

581 AD Sui Dynasty Reunites China- After nearly four centuries of internal divisions and strife, China was reunited under the leadership of Yang Jian. A member of a respected aristocratic family, Yang Jian founded the Sui Dynasty. Yang Jian used Buddhism to help unite the kingdom.

598 AD Pope Greogory Obtains 30 Year Truce- Gregory the Great was the first monk to become Pope. For many, he was a model for the future papacy. Gregory controlled the civil affairs of Rome and expanded the power of the Church. Gregory also negotiated a 30-year truce with Lombards, insuring the independence of Rome.

600 AD Kingdom of Funan And Chenla-The Cambodian Kingdom of Funan was taken over by the Northern Kingdom of Chenla.

604 AD Shotoku’s Reforms- Between 593 and 628 Empress Suiko ruled Japan. During her reign, the prime mover behind the throne was Prince Shotoku. In 604, Shotoku issued a seventeen-article “Constitution”. It called for a strong central government in Japan, based on the Chinese model. Some of Shotoku’s reforms were implemented leading to a more centralized Japanese government.

618 AD T’ang Dynasty Founded- The T’ang Dynasty was founded in 618 by Li Yuan and his son Li Shih-min. The T’angs dynasty used Loyang and Ch’ang-an as eastern and western capitals. The basic administrative organization of the Tang dynasty would guide China until the 20th century.

622 AD Forced To Flee Mecca -The town elders of Mecca initially opposed the teachings of Mohammed. They forced him to flee to Medina. His flight became known as the Hegira.

627 AD Battle Of Nineveh At the battle of Nineveh, the forces of Heraclius (the Byzantine Emperor), defeated the forces of the Sassanid Empire. The Persian forces were led by Khosrau II. The victory saved the Byzantine Empire from further Persian attack.

630 AD Mecca Falls – Muhammad- Muhammed organized the commonwealth of Islam in and around Mecca. A series of battles was fought between Mecca and Medina. Under the Treaty of Hudaybiya, Muhammad’s followers were finally given the right to undertake pilgrimages to Mecca. But when this right was denied them, they took control of the city.

632 AD First Islamic Caliphate- Muhammed died in 632 A.D. Abu Bakr became the first Caliph or ‘agent of the prophet’. He brings rebellious Arab tribes under control.

634 AD Omar I- Sword Of God- Abu Bakr dies after ruling as Caliph for only two years. He is succeeded by Omar, who is given the name ‘sword of God’ for his many military exploits in expanding Muslim rule. His first target will be Syria.

635 AD Persians Defeated- Under Omar, the Arabs begin a series of campaigns against the Persian Empire. They first lose to the Persians at the Battle of the Bridge, only to defeat the Persians in 635 at Tel Buwayb. Omar goes on to win a series of battles. The Battle of Nehawand in central Persia completed his conquest of the Persian Empire in 642.

637 AD Jerusalem Surrendered- Omar began a campaign against the Byzantines. The Arab forces defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmuk. The Arabs took Damascus and Emessa. In 638 Jerusalem surrendered to Omar’s forces. Ceasaria and Aleppo were soon taken as well.

639 AD Rois Faineats- Dagobert was the last strong king of the Frankish Kingdom. With his death, royal power declined. In its place, arose a period of feudal decentralization. Land and power were more strongly concentrated in the aristocracy. There was a breakdown of state power which became decentralized in the hands of local officials who ruled with nearly complete independence.

642 AD Arabs Conquer Egypt- Arab forces under the command of Amir ibn al-As attacked Egypt. In 642, under terms arranged by Cyrus, Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt surrendered. Terms of the agreement included guaranteed security for people and property, as well as freedom of religion. All this was to be obtained in return for the payment of tribute.

644 AD Omar I Assassinated- Omar I was assassinated in a mosque of Medina. His assassin was a Persian slave of a provincial governor. Omar was seceded by Othman from the Omayyad clan.

656 AD Battle Of The Camels- Othman was assassinated in Medina. He was succeeded by Muhammed’s nephew and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. The succession is disputed by Aisha, Muhammmad’s widow, on behalf of the Omayyad clan. Ali defeats the rebels at the Battle of the Camels.

660 AD Kingdom of Silla (Korea)- The Kingdom of Silla, on the Korean peninsula, conquered the Paekchke Kingdom. It then went on to capture the Koguryu Kingdom. These conquests brought about the first unification of the Korean Peninsula.

661 AD Ali Assassinated- Ali was assassinated in a mosque in Kufah. His assassin was a former supporter who became a Kharajite critic of Ali. Ali was succeeded by Muawiya who founded the Omayyad caliphate.

673 – 678 Ad Arab Forces Fail To Capture Constantinople- From 673-678 A.D., Arab forces besieged Constantinople. The siege failed due to both the strength of the city walls and a new invention- “the Greek Fire” which caused havoc among the Arab fleet. In 678 A.D., a 30-year peace treaty was negotiated.

680 AD Battle Of Karbala- The Caliph Muawiya died in Damascus after an 18-year reign. His son Yazid succeeded him. Yazid’s succession is contested by the Kufans, who invited al-Husain, the son of Ali, to be the new caliph. When al-Husain arrived from Mecca, a battle took place at Karbala. Al-Husain was killed, becoming a martyr for Shi’ite Muslims.

680 – 1018 AD First Bulgarian Empire- The first Bulgarian Empire was created when the Bulgars defeated the Byzantines. They then went on to occupy the area between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains. The Bulgarian Empire was in constant conflict with the Byzantine Empire. In 1018, the Bulgars submitted to the Byzantines and became part of the Byzantine Empire.

685 AD Malik I- Malik I (Abd-al-Malik ibn Rarawn) became the new caliph. He ended decades of regional strife, instituting a postal service and replacing the Roman and Greek coins used in the empire with Arabian ones.

700 AD Chinese Invent Gunpowder-The Chinese combined saltpeter, sulpher, and carbon to create gun powder. The Chinese used gun powder primarily for fireworks.

700 AD Srivijaya Empire (Indonesia)-The Srivijaya Empire becomes the leading power in Indonesia. The Srivijayas originated in southern Sumatra. They controlled commercial trade routes through the islands.

705 AD Walid I- Malik I was succeeded by his son Walid. Under Walid’s reign, the Omayyad Caliphate reached India in the East and Spain in the west. Many important structures were completed under his stewardship including the Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem.

705 AD Wu Hou Empress Of China – Wu Hou became Empress of China in 705. She was the first woman to rule China and during her reign strengthened the T’ang Dynasty.

707 AD Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers – Tangiers was captured by Muslim armies under the command of Musa ibn-Nusayr in 707. Musa was the Ommayad governor of North Africa. The Moroccan Berbers were subdued by Musa.

711 AD Islamic Conquest Of Spain- The Islamic conquest of Spain began when Tariq, a Muslim general, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar. On July 26th his army of 7,000 men defeated Roderick, the last King of the Visigoths at the Battle of Wadi Bekka. The Muslims went on to the conquest of Spain, advancing to the Pyrenees by 718 A.D.

711 AD Charlemagne- Charlemagne became the Frankish ruler in the east upon the death of his brother Caroman I. Until his brother’s death, Charlemagne had ruled the Neustri and Aquitaine. In a series of campaigns, Charlemgne expanded his empire to include all of Germany . He maintained very close ties to the Pope, thus increasing church influence.

718 AD Pelayo Founded Kingdom Of Asturias- Pelayo defeated the Muslims at Covadonga in Northwest Spain. Pelayo, a Christian, created the Kingdom of Asturias.

730 AD Khazar Defeat Arabs. Khazar commander Barjik leads Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeat an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.

732 AD Battle Of Tours- At the Battle of Tours, the Franks under Charles Martel, defeated a Muslim expedition led by Adb-el-Rahman across the Pyrenees. This marked the furthest incursion of Muslim forces into Europe.

749 AD Abu-Al Abbas Accepts A Public Oath- The Omayyad Caliphate was overthrown when Abu Al-Abbas, the great-grandson of Muhammad’s uncle, took the public oath as leader of the Abbasids. The Omayyads are then defeated at the Battle of the Zab River by the Abbasids. Nearly all members of the Ommayad clan are then murdered by the Abbasids.

754 AD Pepin The Short- Pepin was the King of the Franks. Pope Stephen II sanctified him both as a king and as king of the Frankish Church. Pepin founded the Carolingian Dynasty.

754 AD AL Mansur becomes ruler- With the death of Abu al-Abbas, al-Mansur became his successor. al-Mansur swiftly eliminated all threats to his rule and extended the power of the Abbasid Caliphate.

775 – 785 AD Al-Mahdi Reigns- Al- Mahdi ruled the Abbasid Caliphate for ten years. These were years notable for the improvement of communications within the empire and for the founding of schools and towns. Al-Mahdi also encouraged the arts.

780 – 809 AD Harun Al Rashid- Harun al-Rashid headed the Abbasid Caliphate from 786 to 809. Under his reign, the caliphate reached the height of its power. His court in Baghdad was the center of a rich world of artists, poets and musicians.

794 AD Kyoto Founded- The Kyoto period in Japanese history began when the Emperor moved the capital to a site near that of present-day Kyoto. The period lasted until 1185.

800 AD Charlemagne- Emperor Of The West- Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III on December 25th — Christmas Day — in St. Peters Church. Pope Leo allowed Charlemagne to clear himself of a series of charges. The coronation of Charlemagne represented an irrevocable breach between Constantinople and Rome.  

802 AD Angkor Period- The Angor Period began in 802, when Jayavarman II established his capital at Angor. Jayavarman united all of Cambodia, and achieved independence from Java.              

813 – 833 AD Mamun The Great- The caliphate reached its most glorious period under the rule of Mamun the Great. A house of knowledge was set up in Baghdad. There the great Greek and Roman works of antiquity were translated into Arabic.             

843 AD Treaty Of Verdun – Under the Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian Kingdom of the Franks was divided into three parts. Louis II ruled the Frankish Kingdom east of the Rhine. Lothair I ruled northern Italy, part of France and Belgium; and Charles II (the Bald) ruled the western Frankish Empire, consisting of most of today’s France.   

820 AD Algebra Invented The Arabic scholar al-Khwarizmi set forth the branch of Alegebra. Al Khwarizmi derived his works from Hindu works as well as other earlier works.

845 AD Wu-Tsung Persecutes Buddhists- During the reign of the Taoist Wu Tsung, other religions were persecuted. The Buddhists were among the persecuted, but had become so integral a part of China that the religion survived the persecution.            

851 AD Danish Viking Sack London- Danish vikings sailed up the Thames in 851 A.D. They sacked London and Canterbury but were defeated at Ockley by the King of the West Saxons.              

860 ADKhazar Kings Convert to Judaism- The Khazar kings convert to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presides over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s.            

862 AD Rurik Lead Viking Raids- Found Russia- The Viking chieftain, Rurik, led raids on Northern Russia. It is believed that in 862, he and his band called Varangians were invited to Novogrod to bring order to the area. This is said to mark the beginning of the Imperial Russian Period. 

866 – 1160 AD Fujiwara Period- The Fujiwara period began in Japan in 866. Fujiwaa Mototsune became the first civilian dictator. During this period important works of classic Japanese literature and art were produced.         

867 AD Basil Founds Macedonian Dynasty- Basil had his co-emperor Michael III murdered to become the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Basil founded what became known as the Macedonian Dynasty which would last until 1076. This is considered the Golden Age of the Byzantines.        

872 AD Harold I King Of Norway- Harold I was responsible for the creation of modern Norway by deposing many of the petty chieftains to unify the country.   

878 AD Alfred Great Victory Over Danes- Alfred the Great won a major victory over the Danes in the Battle of Edington in Southern England. As a result of this battle, the Treaty of Wedmore was signed between Arthur and the Danes. It divided England into Northern and Southern sectors with London falling in Alfred’s Southern region.

907 AD Five Dynasties Begin- The period between 907-959 was known as the period of Five Dynsties. During this period imperial control was largely limited to the Yellow River Basin.

911 AD The Treaty Of St. Clair-sur-Epte- In 911 A.D., the Treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte was signed. Under the terms of the treaty, the Kingdom of Normandy was established, Rollo the Viking became the first ruler, and he converted to Christianity.

935 AD Koryo Dynasty Founded- The Koryo Dynasty was founded in 935 by Wang Kon who had united Korea. The Koryo Dynasty established a strong central government as well as a civil service. This dynasty remained in power until 1392.

945 AD Ahmad Ibn Buwayh Caliph – A member of a Persian clan, Ahmad ibn Buwah entered Baghdad unopposed. He declared himself to be the new caliph. This begins the Buwayhid Dynasty that is to rule for 100 years.

955 AD Otto I The Great Defeats Magyars Otto the Great defeated the Magyars in 955 A.D. at the Battle of Lechfeld. This ended 50 years of Magyar raids on Western Europe.

960 AD Sung Dynasty Founded- The Sung Dynasty was founded by Kao Tsu. During his lifetime, Kao Tsu managed to reunite much of China. The Sung Dynasty is considered to mark the advent of modernity in China. It was period known for progressive social policies, as well as a productive period for art, poetry and philosophy.

962 – 1886 AD The Ghaznavids- The Ghaznavids dynasty was founded by Subaktagin, a Turkish slave who converted to Islam. The dynasty established itself in what is now known as Afghanistan. The leader of the Ghaznavids on the death of his father became Mahmud of Ghanzni. A fervent Muslim, he expanded his rule to include most of Northern India.

962 AD Otto I Emperor Of Rome- Otto the Great was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII. Otto ended the anarchy in Rome by soon appointing his own Pope. He revived the power of the Western Roman Empire.

989 AD The Peace of God – The Peace of God was passed at the Council of Charroux. It was supported by Hugh Capet, King of France. The Peace of God attempted to reduce feudal warfare by limiting private wars to certain parts of the year, and by providing protection for noncombatants. The Peace used to the power of excommunication to enforce its stipulations.

990 AD Kingdom Of Ghana Defeats Saharan Berbers- The Kingdom of Ghana defeated the Saharan Berber tribes of Lemtuna in 990. The Ghanians captured Audaghost, the Berber capital.

1014 AD Basil II Defeats Bulgarians-The Byzantine Emperor Basil II routed the Bulgarians at the Battle of Cimbalugu. Basil killed most of the Bulgarian army, and then blinded 24,000 Bulgarian captives. The Bulgarians were forced to submit to Byzantine rule.

1016 AD Canute II Rules All Of England- On the death of Ethelred II the King of England, Edmund II succeeded to the throne. Canute II, a Dane, was chosen by the Witan- the advisory council to the King. Canute II battled Edmund at Ashington and defeated him. This led to Caunute II being crowned King of all England.

1025 AD Boleslav- First King Of Poland- Poland gained independence from the Holy Roman Empire when Boleslav I was crowned the first Polish King at Gniezno in 825. Poland quickly emerged as one of Europe’s most powerful nations, extending from the Bugthe to the Elbe and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.

1031 AD The Ommiad Caliphate Of Spain Dissolved – After 30 years of anarchy, the Omayyad Caliphate of Spain dissolved on the death of Hisham III. Spain was divided into a number of small Muslim states.

1034 AD Byzantine Empress Poison Husband The Byzantine Empress Zoe poisoned her husband, Romanus III. She went on to marry Michael IV of Paphiagonia and then reigned together with him until 1041.

1055 AD Sejuk Turks Take Bagdhad- Seljuk Turks, under the command of Togrul, captured Baghdad. They ousted the Persian Buwayhid Dynasty. The Abbasides looked upon the Seljuks as liberators and supported them. The Seljuk Empire would reach it’s zenith under Malik Shah who expanded the Empire to the point that it seriously threatened the Byzantine Empire’s continued existence.

1057 AD Anwratha – Burma United – Anawratha, the Burmese king of Paga, conquered the Mon Kingdom of Thaton. For the first time, all of Burma was under unified rule.

 Battle Of Hasting- At the Battle of Hastings, the Norman, William the Conqueror defeated Harold II, King of England. The victory led to the complete domination of England by the Normans. On December 25th, William was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.

1066 AD Tower Of London Constructed- William the Conquerer began building the Tower of London in 1066. It stands to this day.

1076 AD Kingdom Of Ghana Defeated- The Berber Almoravids conquered the Kingdom of Ghana. The capital Kumbi Saleh was sacked. The Ghanaian empire fell apart.

1085 AD Alfonso VI Conquers Toledo- Alfonso VI, the Christian King of Leon and Castile, captured Toledo from the Almoravids and made it his capital.

1094 AD El Cid Takes Valencia- Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar known as El Cid, captured the Moorish Kingdom of Valencia after a nine-month siege. Violating the terms of the surrender, El Cid had the Cadi ibn Djahaff burned alive.

1096 – 1099 First Crusades- The First Crusade began with a call By Alexius I in 1095 for assistance from other Christian states to counter repeated attacks made by Seljuk Turks. He also decried Muslim control of the Holy Land. His call was echoed by the Pope. As many as 30,000 people responded and joined the Crusade. The Seljuk Muslims are easily defeated in Syria. In 1099, the Crusaders arrive in Jerusalem. They lay siege to the city, capture it and thoroughly sack it killing thousands of Muslims and Jews indiscriminately.

1106 AD Battle of Tinchebray- An English war of succession came to an end at the Battle of Tinchebray, in Normandy. It began with the death of William II, King of England on August 2nd, 1100. Henry I (Beauclerc) seized the throne, but was opposed by his brother Robert II (Curthhose), of Normandy. Henry defeated Robert at Tinchebray and returned him in chains. Robert spent the rest of his life in prison.

1113 AD Khmer Empire Reaches Peak – The Khmer Empire in present-day Cambodia was established in 600 and reached its peak under Suryavarman II. Under his leadership, the Khmer Empire was expanded to include most of the area consisting of modern-day Vietnam.

1125 AD Henry V Dies Matilda Returns to England- Henry V, King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, died after leading an expedition against the French Louis VI. His widow, Matilda, returned to England where her father forced English nobles to accept her as his successor after the death of his son at sea. When Henry I, her father, died Stephen of Blois, Henry’s nephew, refused to accept Matilda’s rule and he seized power. This resulted in a ten-year war of succession.

1143 AD Alfonso I King Of Portugal- Under the terms of the Treaty of Zamora in 1143, the independence of Portugal was recognized. Alfonso I became the first King.

1147 AD Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was organized by Louis VII, King of Spain and Conrad III, King of Germany. The Crusade came to a disastrous end due to a lack of leadership and control. It ended with an aborted siege of Damascus.

1147 AD Morrocco Conquered By Almohads – Morocco was conquered by Abd al-Mumin, the leader of the Berber Muslim Almohad Dynasty. This conquest brought to an end the Almoravid Dynasty. By 1152, Algeria was also brought under the control of the Almohads.

1157 AD Eric IX Jedvardsson Defeats Finns- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) Christian King of Sweden, defeated the Finns. He then forced them to convert to Christianity.

1163 AD Work Began On Notre Dame- One of the most notable gothic churches was begun in 1163- Notre Dame. The church was conceived by Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris.

1168 AD Oxford Founded- The school of Oxford was founded in 1168. After the founding of the University of Paris in 1200 Oxford became an offshoot of it.

1171 AD Saladin Founds Ayyubid Dynasty- Saladin, ruler of Egypt, proclaimed the end of the Fatima dynasty that had ruled Egypt since 968. He declared himself Caliph of the new Ayyubid dynasty.

1171 AD Henry II Launches Invasion of Ireland- Henry II, King of England responded to a request for help from Ireland’s deposed King Dermot MacMurrough, by sending forces to Warford. Henry was recognized as the ruler of Ireland by the Treaty of Windsor in 1171.

1174 AD William The Lion Defeated- Henry II defeated William the Lion, King of Scotland at the siege of Alnwick Castle in 1174. William officially accepted Henry as the ruler of Scotland.

1176 AD Frederick I Barbarossa Defeated By Lombard League- The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I (Barbossa) was decisively defeated by the Lombard League at Legano. Frederick was attempting to reassert his authority over northern Italy.

1184 AD Streets Paved In Paris- The streets in front of the Louvre were paved. This marked the first time streets in Paris were paved.

1185 AD Battle of Dannoura- The Japanese Tairo clan was decisively defeated by the Minamoto clan in a naval battle that took place off Dannoura. The child emperor Antoku, who had been held prisoner by the Taira, was killed in the battle. Japan entered the Kamakura period in the aftermath of the battle. It was a era marked by a clear division between the powerless imperial court and the dominant military government.

1187 AD Battle Of Hittin- Christian forces from the Kingdom of Jerusalem attacked a caravan carrying the sister of Saladin. In retaliation, he began a holy war against the Crusaders. At the Battle of Hittim, he defeated a combined Christian army. He then laid siege to Jerusalem and captured it, although he did not sack the city after the conquest.

1186 AD Second Bulgarian Empire- A successful revolt took place against the Byzantine rule of Bulgaria. This established the second Bulgarian empire which lasted until 1396.

1192 Ad Crusader Captures Acre- Spurred by Saladin’s triumph, the Christians launch the Third Crusade, led by Richard the Lionhearted. Despite many difficulties, they reached the coastal area of the Holy Land and successfully captured the Acre fortress. Richard negotiated a truce with Saladin that ensured Christian access to holy sites in Jerusalem.

1199 AD Richard The Lionhearted Dies- Richard the Lionhearted died of an arrow wound while besieging Chalus in Western France. Richard, ruler of England since 1189, had actually spent very little time there. Instead, he helped lead the Third Crusade. Richard had been imprisoned by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1193, but managed to purchase his freedom. He fought an on-going battle with Philip II of Normandy. While Richard was involved in affairs outside England, the land was administered for him by Jubert Walter.

1200 AD University Of Paris Founded -Phillip II, King of France, issued a charter to establish the University of Paris. The University offered a traditional liberal education.

1202 AD Fourth Crusade- The Fourth Crusade began at the behest of Emperor Henry, King of Sicily. Pope Innocent III issued a call to European monarchs to participate in the Crusade. The call was answered primarily by the French baronage. The only way to reach Egypt — the objective of the Crusade — was by sea. The Crusaders asked the Venetians to transport them, but the Venetians demanded 85,000 marked and half the booty. When the impossibility of raising that sum became clear, the Venetians agreed to transport the Crusaders, if the Crusaders would promise to capture the Christian city of Zara. Pope Innocent, who had opposed the action, excommunicated the Crusaders.

1202 AD Danish Empire- Valdemar II succeeded to the Danish throne upon the death of his brother. Valdemar expanded the Danish Empire to include Northern Germany.

1204 AD Crusaders Capture Constantinople – Constantinople was captured for the first time in 1204. Soldiers of the Fourth Crusade seized the city on April 12 after a six-month siege. They mercilessly sacked the city.

1206 AD Genghis Khan In 1206, Temujin was proclaimed Genghis Khan. Khan established the Mongolian capital at Karakorum. He expanded the empire to include to much of Northern China and Korea. In 1220, he turned his attentions to Persia.

1212 AD Las Navas de Tolosa Battle- At the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, forces of the Christian Spanish King Alfonso VIII of Leon and Castile were victorious against Muslim Almohades. This marked the beginning of the end of Muslim rule in Iberia.

1215 AD Magna Carta- In 1215, a group of determined barons forced King John of England to sign the Magna Carta. Under the terms of Magna Carta, the British aristocracy was granted the rights of trial by jury and protection from arbitrary acts by the King.

1217 AD French English Battles- With the death of King John, civil war soon divided England. The French with prince Louise intervened and occupied part of England. The French were defeated by the English at the Battle of Lincoln and then lost their fleet at the naval Battle of Sandwich. They were forced to withdraw.

1228 AD 6th Crusade Controls Jerusalem- The Sixth Crusade, led by Frederick II, managed to gain control of Jerusalem through diplomatic means. Frederick signed a treaty with Malik al-Kamil, the nephew of Saladin. Under the terms of the treaty Malik ceded Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Nazareth and a corridor to the port of Acre to Frederick. Frederick had himself crowned King of Jerusalem at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on March 18th 1228.

1229 AD Great Khan- Genghis Khan died in 1227. By that time, he had captured much of the Persian Empire, and had led raids as far away as the Steppes of Russia. Genghis Khan was succeeded by his third son, Ogadai. Ogadai, whose title became ‘the Great Khan’ subdued the Chin dynasty in northern China, and ravaged much of Eastern Europe.

1231 AD Golden Bull Of Sicily- The Golden Bull of Sicily was issued in 1212 by Frederick I. It brought about a complete reorganization of Sicily. More importantly, it constituted a complete promulgation of a code of laws for the subjects of Sicily.

1232 AD 1st Known Use Of Rockets- In the 1232 the Chinese used rockets in battle for the first time. This demonstrated the military use of gunpowder. From this moment on the use of gunpowder spread rapidly around the world.

1232 AD Royal Charter For Coal Fields- A royal charter was issued in 1239 for the development of the coal fields in New Castle. This began the rapid development of coal as a source of energy.

1236 AD Cordoba Taken From Moors- In 1236, Ferdinand III captured Cordoba from the Moors. By 1248, after the capture of Seville, only Granada was left in Moorish hands.

1240 AD Nevsky Defeats Swedes- In 1240, Alexander Nevsky a Russian prince, defeated the Swedes, near St. Petersburg. The Swedes had invaded at the request of Pope Gregory IX, who wanted to punish the Orthodox Russians for helping the Finns avoid conversion to Latin Catholicism.

1244 AD Jerusalem Recaptured By Muslims- Muslim mercenaries under the direction of the Egyptian pasha Khwarzmi, captured Jerusalem. This leads to the Sixth Crusade, which did not achieve its goals. Egypt controlled Jerusalem until 1517, and it remained in Muslim hands until 1918.

1250 AD Seventh Crusade Ended First Mameluke Dynasty Founded- The Seventh Crusade met defeat at the hands of Egyptian forces led by the new Caliph, Turanshah, at the Battle of Fairskur on April 6th 1250. Turanshah captures Louis IX whom he released only after the payment of a ransom.

The actions of the new caliph troubled many of the Egyptian leaders who had supported him. They turned to the Mamelukes to overthrow Turanshah. The Mamelukes went on to rule Egypt until 1517.

1258 AD Provisions Of Oxford- In 1258, a crisis developed in England over a new series of taxes levied by Henry III. Rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfor demanded a program of reforms be enacted by the “Mad Parliament”. There would be a council of fifteen who would have veto power over the actions of the king. The council was to meet three times each year.

1260 AD Battle Of Ain Jalut- The advance of the Mongols on the Muslim world was stopped at the Battle of Ain Jalut, fought in Palestine between the Mamelukes (led by the ex-slave Baybars) and Julegu Khan, who had captured Damascus. In the course of the battle, the Mongol general Ket Buqa was killed and thus the Mamelukes carried the day.

1262 AD Norway Annexes Iceland and Greenland- Norway’s King Haakon IV intervened in a civil war in Iceland. The result: annexation by Norway of both Iceland and Greenland.

1270 AD Louis IX Dies- Louis IX died in 1270 while on the Eighth Crusade. His reign was marked by a huge expansion of royal power. The King’s power increased at the expense of both the Church as well as local communal movements. The royal justice system was also greatly expanded. This was a period marked by material and cultural advances in France.

1271 AD Marco Polo- In 1271, Marco Polo — accompanied by his father — set off for China. They arrived in the court of the Great Khan, where Khan took the European visitors into his service.

Polo became intimately acquainted with all parts of China. When he returned to Europe after 15 years of service to the Khan, he wrote the Book of Various Experiences about his time in Asia, that garnered wide readership in Europe.

1273 AD Hapsburg Dynasty Established- The great Interregnum ended. It had been in existence since 1254 when the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire died. The new Emperor was Rudolf I of the Hapsburgs. In 1278, the Hapsburgs gained control over Austria. Thus began a dynasty that lasted until 1918.

1280 AD Kublia Khan- Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, founded the Yuan dynasty in China. The site of present-day Peking became his capital. Khan completed the conquest of China becoming the first non-Chinese to rule that land. Kublai Khan’s empire stretched from China to Arabia and Eastern Europe- the largest the world has ever known.

1281 AD Failed Chinese Attack On Japan- A large Mongolian armada that may have number 145,000 men landed at Hakozaki Bay. The Japanese were waiting for them and repulsed the attack. A typhoon then destroyed the Mongol fleet, leaving their army to be killed or enslaved.

1282 King Of Denmark Accepts Limitation Of Power- Danish nobility forced Eric V to sign a Danish “Magna Carta”. This document established a Danish parliament that met once each year. The King was made subordinate to the Parliament.

1284 AD Genoa Defeats Pisa- The Republic of Genoa fought the rival Italian city state of Pisa. Pisa was defeated at a naval battle off Meloria. Genoa then enjoyed a golden age, while Pisa was occupied by a series of other city states.

1291 AD Swiss Confederation Founded- Three Swiss cantons, Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden formed the League of the Three Forest Cantons in 1291. The League was established for mutual defense. The cantons made no claims of independence, but this League constituted the basis for the ultimate establishment of the Swiss state.

1293 AD Finland Conquered by Sweden- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) Christian King of Sweden, defeated the Finns. He then forced them to convert to Christianity

1298 AD Scottish Rebellion Against English- The English under Edward I won a decisive victory over the Scots at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scots had rebelled under the leadership of William Wallace. The English used long bows successfully to subdue to the Scots and end the rebellion.

1298 AD Chinese Develop A Cannon- The Chinese developed the first prototype canon. While the Chinese were at the forefront of the early use of gunpowder, it was the Europeans who soon developed pistols and other guns that gave them a decisive military advantage.

1302 AD Philip IV Calls Meeting Of The Estates General- Philip IV of France called together representatives of the nobility, townspeople and clergy for the first time. The gathering became known as the Estates-General. Philip’s main purpose in convening this group was to garner support against Pope Boniface, whose bull ‘Unam Sanctum’ proclaimed Papal supremacy over national leaders.

1309 AD Avignonese Papacy- Pope Clement V, who was heavily influenced by Philip IV of France, took up residency in Avignon, France. Clement rescinded Boniface’s pronouncements against Philip. Until 1378, Popes continued to reside in Avignon.

1314 AD Battle Bannockburn- Scotland- The Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, routed a larger force led by Edward II, King of England. The two armies met at the Battle of Bannockburn, which took place in central Scotland. The Scottish victory insured Scotland’s independence for the next three centuries.

1314 – 1317 AD Great European Famine – The worst famine to strike Europe occurred between 1314-1317. It was widespread, affecting all of Northern Europe. Eyewitness accounts tell of the poor and hungry resorting to eating cats and dogs.

1315 AD Swiss Victory – Swiss forces, led by the canton of Schwyz, gained a victory over Leopold I (Hapsburg) Duke of Austria at the Battle of Morgarten. The victory led to an expanded Swiss alliance. By 1353 Switzerland was established.

1326 AD Isabelle Desposes Husband England was invaded by the French wife of King Edward II – Isabelle. She was supported by French troops and gained control of England as Edward II was forced to flee London. Isabelle arranged for her son Edward III to be crowned King.

1326 AD The Ottoman Empire Founded- The Ottoman Empire was established when the Byzantine fortress of Bursa falls after a nine-year siege to the forces of the Osmali Turks, under Osman. The same year, Osman died and was succeeded by his son Orkhan who ruled until 1360. Under Orkahn, the Empire expanded to include central Anatolia and Thrace.

1337 AD Hundred Year War- The Hundred Years War began when Philip VI contested the English claim to Normandy and other northern provinces. At the same time, Edward III contested Philip’s legitimacy based on the fact that his mother was the daughter of Philip IV. He demanded the crown of France. Edward won the support of many Flemish towns. He ravaged the French countryside, but at first fought no decisive battles.

1340 AD French Fleet Annihilated- The French navy was destroyed at the Battle of Sluis which took place off the coast of Flanders. The victory gave England naval supremacy in the English Channel.

1340 AD Battle Of Crecy – A smaller British force under the command of Edward III defeated a French army under the command of Philip VI. This marked the first use of cannon and small arms in battle in Europe.

1347 – 1353 AD The Black Death- The Black Death (bubonic plague) that spread throughout Europe between 1347 and 1353 was the worse natural disaster in European history. It is estimated that of a population of 75 million people, between 19 to 35 million died. The plague was spread by rats infested by infected fleas. The plague originated in the East. Ships carrying infected vermin came to the island of Sicily. The disease spread northward throughout Europe. It took two hundred years for Europe’s population to recover. One of the most bizarre results of the plague was the large-scale outbreak of anti-semitism. Jews were accused of causing the plague. Over 60 Jewish communities were entirely wiped out in Germany alone.

1348 AD University Of Kracow Founded The University of Kracow was founded in Poland. Its sponsor was Casimir III the King of Poland.

1356 AD Battle In Poitiers- At the Battle of Poiters, the Black Prince of Wales Edward defeated the French. In the course of the battle, the French king, John II, was taken prisoner and brought to England. This resulted in civil chaos in France.

1360 AD Treaty of Calias- With both England and France exhausted by the war, they signed the Treaty of Calias on October 24th 1360. Under its terms, John II of France was ransomed and Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.

1368 AD Chu Yuan-Chang, A Chinese Buddhist Monk Founds Ming Dynasty- A large Mongolian armada that may have numbered 145,000 men, landed at Hakozaki Bay. The Japanese were waiting for them and repulsed the attack. A typhoon then destroyed the Mongol fleet, leaving the army to be killed or enslaved.

1372 AD Revival Of Hundred Year War off La Rochelle- The Hundred Years War resumed when the French fleet defeated the British fleet off La Rochelle y France. The French were helped by a powerful fleet from Castile. On June 27, 1375 the French and English signed the Truce of Bruges. Under its terms, the British presence in France was limited to Calia, Brest, Bordeaux and Bayonne.

1381 AD War of Chioggia- The Venetians and the Genoans fought in the War of Chioggia. The Genoans blockaded the Venetians after seizing Chioggia. The Venetian fleet under Vittoria Pisano defeated the Genoans. This began the golden age of Venice.

1381 AD The Peasants Revolt- A rebellion led by Wat Tyler created anarchy throughout England. 30,000 rioters converged on London. Once there, they burned a number of public buildings and beheaded the archbishop of Canterbury. King Richard made promises to meet the rioters demands, however the next day Tyler was killed and the revolt was put down.

1385 AD Portugal Free from Spain- The Portugese fought Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota. The Portugese were led by John the Great. His victory insured the independence of Portugal.

1397 AD Union of Kalamar- Magaret Queen of Sweden completed the conquest of Denmark and Norway. She then went on to form the Kalamar League, which became a Union of all three countries.

1400 AD Kingdom of Maracca was Founded-The Kingdom of Malacca was founded on the Malay peninsular in the current day Indonesia. Malacca, which was founded by Paramesvara, soon became the leading maritime power in South East Asia.

1400 AD Mongols Invade Syria- In 1400 the Mongol conqueror Tameralne invaded Syria after devastating Georgia and Russia. The next year he laid waste to Aleppo Damascus and Baghdad. In 1402 Tamerlane then went on to defeat the Ottoman sultan at the battle of Angora.

1405 AD Mongol Empire Divided- Tamerlane, the leader of the Mongols, died suddenly while preparing to attack Ming China. With his death the Mongol Empire rapidly fell apart.

1410 AD Battle of Tannenberg – The Poles and the Lithuanians defeated German Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg on July 15th 1410. Despite the victory, at the Peace of Thorn signed in 1411, the Poles failed to gain access to the sea.

1415 AD English forces destroy French at Battle of Agincourt The British decisively defeated the French at the battle of Agincourt on October 25th. The British archers, under the command of Henry V, were the key to the British victory over the French . Five French counts, 90 barons and over 5,000 French knights were killed in the battle and 1,000 were taken prisoner. As a result of the English victory the French nobility was shattered and the feudal system was destroyed. Normandy lay open to English reconquering.

1415 AD Henry the Navigator- Takes Ceuta – The Portuguese explorer and prince, Henry the Navigator captured Ceuta, in today’s Morocco from the Marind dynasty. This begins Portuguese conquest of parts of Africa.

1420 AD Chinese Capital- Peking- The Second Ming Emperor moved the capital of China from Nanking to Peking.

1420 AD Treaty of Troyes- The French under Philippe and England under Henry V signed the Treaty of Troyes. Under the terms of the treaty Henry became the the king of both France and England. Henry was allowed to occupy all the land to the Loire.

1423 AD Battle of Cravant – In 1422 England resumed its war with France. In August 1423 French and Scottish forces were decisively defeated by the forces of England under the command of John Plantagent who was acting as regent for the infant Henry VI.

1424 AD France Invades Italy- Charles VIII King of France began the Italian Wars by invading Italy in September 1494. In February 1495 Naples surrendered to Charles. He temporarily became the King of Naples. Alexander VI organizes the Holy League which included Spain to repel the French from Italy. In July 1495 the French lost the Battle of Fornovo and Charles was forced to flee Italy.

1424 AD James I Freed- King of Scotland After being held in English captivity from the age of 11, Scotland’s James I was freed at the age of 29. The earl of Somerset remited 10,000 marks to ransom James as a dowry for his daughter Jane. Jane and James were married in February 1424. In May James was crowned King of Scotland.

1429 AD Joan of Arc Frees Orleans – War between France and England continued on and off, despite various agreements to cease. In 1428 the English began to beseige the Orleans. Joan of Arc a young girl from Lorrain began to have visions and claim to hear voices. She convinced the French dauphin to provide her with a small army and went on to liberate Orleans. This changed the very nature of the conflict giving the French a new sense of confidence in their conflict with England and reinvigorating the French monarchy. Joan convinced the people that the dauphin was the legitimate son of Charles VI and he was crowned King at Reims on July 17, 1429.

1431 AD Joan of Arc- Burned Alive- Joan of Arc entered Comiegne outside Paris and was taken prisoner. The British held Joan in prison in a tower in Rouen.Charles VII made no effort to assist her. The English in 1431 turn Joan over to the former bishop of the of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on the assurance she would be convicted of treason against God. She was convicted and burned to death at the stake on May 30, 1431.

1431 AD Angkor Sacked – Angkor, the capital of the Khmer, was captured and sacked by the Thais. The Khmer Empire was forced to move its capital to the present site of the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.

1435 AD Peace Treaty of Arras -In 1435, Duke Philip of Burgundy became weary of his alliance with the English. He signed a peace treaty with Charles VI which recognized Charles as the one king of France. Charles promised in return to punish the murders of Philip’s father. The English did not accept the peace treaty and warfare continued. Charles and Philip fought together and liberated Paris from the English. A truce then ensued between Britain and France that lasted 13 years.

1438 AD Inca Dynasty Founded- The Inca Dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded in 1438. Its founder is said to have been Pachacutec. He rapidly expanded the empire.

1444 AD Battle of Varna- The Ottoman forces fought a constant series of battles along its Hungarian border. Murad the Ottoman sultan decided to end the strife once and for all. He attacked Belgrade, the chief fortress on the Hungarian border. He was repulsed from Belgrade. Encouraged by their victories the Christians declared a new Crusade against the Ottomans, whose goal was to drive them from Europe. The Christian armies were led by Hunyadi who acheived two important victories, the first at the battle of Hermanstadt, and then at the battle of Nissa in which the Ottomans are driven from Bulgaria.

1450 AD Printing Press Invented- In 1450, Johannes Guttenberg invented the printing press. The invention of the press revolutionized communication and education, allowing the development of newspapers, as well as reasonably priced books. The first product of the press was the Guttenberg Bible.

1453 AD Battle of Castillon-Charles VI became the first king to maintain a standing army, when he created a small French standing army. Knowing that the English were divided Charles decided to attack and reclaim Normandy. His attacks met little resistance. The English sent a fresh army led by Talbot against Charles, but at the battle of Chatillon the English were decisively defeated and the Hundred Years War came to an end.

1453 AD Constantinople Falls to Forces of Muhammad II- The Byzantine Empire came to an end when the forces of Muhammad II captured Constantinople. Muhammad’s forces had been kept at bay by an iron chain that kept his ship away. He brought 70 small ships overland. In addition Muhammad had 250,000 troops and a 1,200 pound cannon that breached the wall of Constantinople. When the walls were breached on May 29th the city fell and over a thousand years of Byzantine rule ended.

1454 AD Treaty of Lodi -Under the term of the Treaty of Lodi hostilities ended between Venice, Milan and Florence. The peace treaty was reached due to the efforts of Pope Nicholas V.

1455 AD War of the Roses Begun – The War of the Roses began in 1455. The war was a civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York. The war was limited to English nobility and involved few of the populace. The first battle of the war was the Battle of St Albans which took place near London. At that battle the Yorkist defeated the Royalist forces.

1456 AD Cape Verde Islands Discovered – Cape Verde Islands off the African coast near Dakar was discovered by Alivse da Cadamosto who was employed in the service of Henry the Navigator. The islands were soon settled by the Portuguese who began to use it for the slave trade.

1461 AD Battle of Towton Moors-War of Roses- The Royalist who wore red roses to battle were defeated by the Yorkist wearing white roses at the Battle of Towton Moors. The battle which was the bloodiest of the war, resulted in Edward being crowned Edward IV King of England.

1471 AD Battle of Tewkesbury- The War of the Roses continued to wage. Edward married Elizabeth Woodville who had no money or rank. Edward handed out titles and money liberally so much so that he aroused the jealousy of the Earl of Warwick. Warwick arranged the ouster of Edward and the return of King Henry. When Warwick was killed in the battle of Barnet Henry was returned to jail, where he was killed immediately. Margaret, Henry’s wife, continued the struggle, but at the Battle of Tewkesbury Margaret’s son was killed and she was captured.

1471 AD Kingdom of Anman Founded- Le Thanh-ton leading the Kingdom of Annam captured Vijaya the capital of the Cham, in present day Vietnam.

1472 AD Ivan III the Great – In 1472 Ivan III- The Great, married the neice of the last Byzantine Emperor. The marriage, which took place ten years into his rule, increased Ivans prestige and helped him unify the various Russian principalities.

1475 AD Treaty of Picquinty England’s Edward IV invaded France in support of the Burgundians. Edward was bought off by a payment and the promise of an annual allowance by Louus XI under the terms of the Treaty of Picquinty.

1477 AD Charles the Bald Killed – The Battle of Nancy is won by Swiss pikement fighting for Louis XI. Charles the Bald, the last of the Burgundy claimants to the throne, is killed in the battle. This effectively ended the incessant battles for the French crown.

1479 AD Treaty of Alcacovas Under the treaty of Alcacovas Portugal abandoned its claim to the Castillian throne as well as its claim to the Canary Islands. The Spanish recognized the Portuguese primacy in Azores islands as well the North and West African coasts.

1480 AD Treaty of Constantinople – The 15 year war between the Ottomans and Venice ended with the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople. Under the terms of the treaty Venice was forced to cede cities along the Albanian coast to the Ottomans. Furthermore the Venetians were forced to pay for the right to trade in the Black Sea.

1485 AD Botticielli Paints The Birth of Venus -In 1485 The Birth of Venus was painted by Sandor Botticielli in Florence. It was Botticeilli’s most famous work. Botticielli also illustrated Dante’s Divana Commedia and worked on the Sistine Chapel

1487 AD Dias Circles South Africa – Bartholomeu Dias the Portuguese explorer was blown off course and around the Cape of Good Hope. He became the first European explorer to circle Southern Africa.

1491 AD Portuguese in Angola Portuguese explorers establish an embassy at Mbanza the capital of the Bantu State in the present Angola. The Kongo ruler converts to Catholicism.

1492 AD Columbus Sets Sails For New World – Isabella, Queen of Spain financed the voyage of Christopher Columbus. His goal was to find a sea route to the Orient by sailing westward. He set sail on August 3, 1492 in his flagship the Santa Maria with 52 men aboard. Also sailing was the smaller Pinta and Nina. On October 12th land is sighted.

1492 AD Jews Driven From Spain -The Jews of Spain were ordered out of Spain by July 31, 1492. Some Jews accept the cross and stayed, while over 100,000 left Spain, many traveling to the Ottoman Empire, while some settled in Portugal.

1492 AD Moors Driven out of Spain -On January 2, 1492 Granada surrendered to Isabella and Ferdinand. Granada was the last Muslim Kingdom in Spain and this marked the final expulsion of the Moors from Spain.

1492 AD Columbus Discovers America -In 1492, Columbus set sail from Spain to discover a westward passage to the Orient. His trip was financed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. On October 12th, after several fearful weeks at sea, Columbus finally set foot on dry land. He landed at San Salvador.

1493 AD Columbus’ Second Voyage – After Columbus returns to Spain with strange animals, a live Indian and other unsusual items Queen Isabella grants Columbus enormous priviledges. He is sent back with 1,500 men and a fleet of 17 ships as the governor of the new land.

1494 AD Treaty of Tordesillas – The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed which divided the world between Portuguese and Spanish lands. The Spanish received all of the land to the West and the Portuguese to the East. This gave Portugal Africa while Spain received all of the new world with the exception of Brazil.

1497 AD John Cabot Discovers NewFoundland- John Cabot together with his son Sebastian discovered Newfoundland. He claims it for England.

1498 AD Christopher Columbus Sets Sail for Third Voyage -In 1498 Christopher Columbus set sail for his third voyage to the New World. In the course of the voyage he discovered Trinidad. In addition he apparently landed in South America.

1498 AD Da Vinci paints The Last Supper- In 1498 Leonardo Da Vinci painted his most famous mural, The Last Supper. The mural depicts the last meal of Christ before being incarcerated.

1498 AD Vasco de Gama Sails to India -Vasco De Gama, the Portuguese explorer, arrived in India. He established a trading post, thus creating a new trade route between Europe and the East.

1498 AD Vasco De Gama lands in India -Following up on the discovery by Dias of the Cape of Good Hope, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama sets sail for India. In 1498, da Gama reached India. 1498 AD Cabot Claims North America For Great Britain -On June 24th, John Cabot, sailing on behalf of King Henry of England, sighted the coast of New Foundland. He claimed lands for England.

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